First Report of Boeremia Blight Caused by Boeremia exigua var. exigua on Pyrethrum in Australia.

  1. Pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) is produced for extraction of insecticidal compounds from the flower achenes. In 2004 and 2006, isolations from necrotic lesions on stems and leaves in three fields in northern Tasmania, Australia yielded 4 unidentified fungal isolates. Leaf lesions have been medium brown and round (2 to Four mm in diameter) or irregular in form (2 to five mm lengthy). Stem lesions have been irregular, necrotic spots, 5 to 15 mm beneath the flower peduncle, medium brown, 2 to Four mm lengthy, and 1 to 2 mm huge.
  2. Isolations have been carried out on water agar following floor sterilization. Isolates have been recognized by colony traits and the presence of metabolite ‘E’ (1). On oatmeal agar (OA), colonies had irregular margins, have been greenish olivaceous-to-olivaceous grey with sparse, white, floccose, aerial mycelia.
  3. On malt extract agar (MEA), cultures have been variable in shade with olivaceous black facilities with mushy, dense, aerial mycelia. Conidia have been hyaline, ellipsoidal to rectangular, primarily aseptate, however often 1-septate with dimensions ranging from 2.5 to 7.5 × 1.Eight to three.Eight μm (size/width ratio = 1.7 to 2.1).
  4. All isolates had reasonable reactions to the NaOH check for metabolite ‘E’. DNA was extracted from all 4 isolates with a DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (QIAGEN Inc., Valencia, CA). For identification, the interior transcribed spacer area (ITS1, 5.8s, and ITS2) and half of the interpretation elongation issue (TEF) area have been amplified and sequenced.
  5. Primers ITS1 and ITS4 (2) have been used for the ITS area and primers EFCF1 (5′-AGTGCGGTGGTATCGACAAG) and EFCF6 (3′-CATGTCACGGACGGCGAAAC) have been used for the TEF.
  6. Amplicons have been sequenced in each instructions and consensus sequences assembled. The ITS sequence was 100% an identical to Boeremia exigua var. exigua (GenFinancial institution Accession No. GU237715).

Base pairs 413 to 1,214 of the TEF sequence from the pyrethrum isolates matched base pairs 1 to 802 (799 of 802 identities) of B. exigua var. exigua (GenFinancial institution Accession No. GU349080). All isolates have been confirmed Transparent Plastic Bottles as B. exigua var. exigua utilizing morphology and sequencing.

Pathogenicity exams have been carried out thrice in separate glasshouse trials for 2 of the 4 isolates.

  • For every isolate, conidial suspensions in water (Three ml/plant) from MEA, adjusted to five × 105/ml have been utilized with Tween 20 (1 drop per 100 ml of water) to 8-week-old pyrethrum vegetation (5 pots per isolate with 4 vegetation per pot) utilizing a hand-held spray bottle.
  • Twenty vegetation have been sprayed with water and Tween 20 as nontreated controls. Plants have been lined with plastic luggage for 48 h after inoculation and examined for signs after 15 days at 20°C.
  • Disease incidence (quantity of symptomatic leaves affected per whole quantity of leaves) of the inoculated vegetation diverse from 7.5 to 9.4%. Noninoculated vegetation didn’t develop signs. Isolations resulted in cultures morphologically an identical on MEA and OA to these inoculated.
  • To our information, that is the primary report of B. exigua var. exigua inflicting illness in pyrethrum. Cultures have been deposited in the New South Wales Department of Agriculture assortment (DAR79101 to 79104) and TEF and ITS sequences for DAR79101 in GenFinancial institution (Accession Nos. JF925328 and JF925329, respectively).
  • Boeremia blight is more likely to contribute to the fungal illness complicated inflicting reductions in inexperienced leaf space in Australian pyrethrum manufacturing. References: (1) M. M. Aveskamp et al. Stud. Mycol. 65:1, 2010. (2) T. J. White et al. PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, 1990.
Brown Bottle
Brown Bottle

First Report of Cobweb Disease Caused by Cladobotryum mycophilum on the Edible Mushroom Pleurotus eryngii in Korea.

  • Pleurotus eryngii is one of essentially the most commercially necessary mushrooms in Korea. In May 2009, uncommon signs have been noticed in P. eryngii grown in mushroom farms in Changnyeong and Hapcheon, in Gyeong-nam Province, Korea. One of the principle signs was cobweb-like progress of fungal mycelia over the mushroom floor. Colonies on the floor quickly overwhelmed the mushrooms, which turned pale brown or yellow. Mushrooms finally turned darkish brown and have become rotten.
  • Colonies of the isolates on potato dextrose agar (PDA) have been yellowish, and a reddish or orange shade was evident in the agar. The colonies grew 20 to 30 mm per day on PDA. Large spores with a single septum have been produced on vertically branched conidiophores bearing two to 4, largely three to 4, sporogenous cells, starting from 17.2 to 20.5 μm lengthy and eight.zero to 10.2 μm thick.
  • The form of the conidia was ellipsoid and obovoid. These morphological traits are according to descriptions of Cladobotryum mycophilum, a causal agent of cobweb illness in Agaricus bisporus (1,4). To establish the remoted fungal pathogen, the ITS area was amplified with ITS1 and ITS4 primers and sequenced.
  • The sequence information from the isolate was deposited in GenFinancial institution (Accession No. JF693809). A BLAST search confirmed that the remoted pressure belonged to a species of Cladobotryum. The highest similarity (99.5%) was to the ITS sequence of C. mycophilum (teleomorph Hypomyces odoratus) (GenFinancial institution Accession Nos. JF505112 and Y17096) (3,4). The pressure that was examined for pathogenicity was grown on PDA at 25°C for 72 h.

The inoculum was ready by flooding the agar floor with 10 ml of sterilized double distilled water and scraping it with a spatula.

The ensuing spore suspension was filtered by way of three layers of cheesecloth. Conidial focus was adjusted with a hemacytometer to 1 × 106 conidia ml-1. A conidia suspension was inoculated onto every of a number of phases of mushroom cultivation with a pipette. The management was noticed with double distilled water. In the case of an infection through the inoculation and spawn operating phases, the fungal mycelia colonized the media and hampered growth of the mycelium of P. eryngii.

In the regeneration and primordia formation phases of the host, the mycelium of the pathogen lined the floor of the plastic bottle containing the substrates and developed many spores. In the rising and harvesting phases, the floor of mushroom was overwhelmed by the mycelium of the fungal pathogen and turned pale or darkish brown, accompanied by cracking of the stipe floor and at last rotting with a foul odor. These signs have been much like the commentary from pure an infection.

The signs of the cobweb-like illness in A. bisporus (1,2) have been noticed inside 5 to 7 days of inoculation with conidia suspensions of C. mycophilum. Fungi remoted from inoculated mushrooms have been proven to be an identical, primarily based on phenotypic attribute, to the inoculated pressure used in these pathogenicity exams. No signs have been noticed on controls.

Duran Bottles 100Ml Plastic coat

F94003 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10

Plastic bottles 250ml supply/waste

WAT4842 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK2

Disposable Meat Sample Plastic tubes with caps (5 ml) (1000/pk)

MST5-1000 Alpha Diagnostics 1 pk

Flystuff (59-194P) Droso-Plugs Cap for Plastic Bottles

FLY1094 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK2560

Corning 1L Square Polycarbonate Storage Bottles with 45mm Caps

431433 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK24

LCP EZ-Cut films (50 pieces, with liners)

MLCP-EZCTF-50 MiTeGen 50 FILMS

Corning 150mL Square Polycarbonate Storage Bottles with 45mm Caps

431430 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK24

Corning 250mL Square Polycarbonate Storage Bottles with 45mm Caps

431431 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK24

Corning 500mL Square Polycarbonate Storage Bottles with 45mm Caps

431432 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK24

Corning 1L Easy Grip Polystyrene Storage Bottles with 45mm Caps

430518 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK24

Disposable Meat Sample Plastic tubes with caps (5 ml) (250/pk)

MST5-250 Alpha Diagnostics 1 pk

Corning 250mL Easy Grip Polystyrene Storage Bottles with 45mm Caps

430281 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK24

Corning 500mL Easy Grip Polystyrene Storage Bottles with 45mm Caps

430282 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK24

Corning 150mL Easy Grip Polystyrene Storage Bottles with 45mm Caps

431175 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK24

Costar 1L Traditional Style Polystyrene Storage Bottles with 45mm Caps

8396 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK12

Costar 125mL Traditional Style Polystyrene Storage Bottles with 45mm Caps

8388 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK24

SCREW CAPS WITH "O" RINGS. BROWN

SCO-BR CORNING 500/pk

Reagent Bottle Clear Narrow neck with plastic stopper 100ml

BOT2136 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10

Reagent Bottle Clear Narrow neck with plastic stopper 250ml

BOT2138 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10

Reagent Bottle Clear Narrow neck with plastic stopper 50ml

BOT2140 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10

Reagent Bottle Amber Narrow neck with plastic stopper 100ml

BOT2150 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10

Reagent Bottle Amber Narrow neck with plastic stopper 250ml

BOT2152 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10

Reagent Bottle Amber Narrow neck with plastic stopper 500ml

BOT2154 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10

Reagent Bottle Amber Narrow neck with plastic stopper 50ml

BOT2156 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10

DURAN protect Laboratory bottle with DIN thread plastic coated GL 25 without cap and without pouring ring 10 ml

BOT1190 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10

Pyrex WM Bottles with Cap and Ring - 250mL

152306 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10

Bottles Cf 250 Ml Pc +Cap

3140-0250 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK4

Bottle Azlon PPR Brown 150ml

BOT3382B Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10

Pump Sampler Set with Glass Bottles

SAM1517 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Bottles 2L Nalgene with Quick Connect

BTLN52 Next Advance 2pack

Bottle Duran Plastic Coat 1L W/out Cap

2180554 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Pump Sampler Set with 12 x PE Bottles 150ml

SAM1521 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Pump Sampler Set with 5 x PE Bottles 250ml

SAM1522 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

DURAN protect Laboratory bottle plastic coated GL 45 10000 ml

BOT1236 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

DURAN protect Laboratory bottle plastic coated GL 45 15000 ml

BOT1238 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

DURAN protect Laboratory bottle plastic coated GL 45 20000 ml

BOT1240 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Bottles Nalgene 500 Ml

2107-0016 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK16

Media bottles 500 ml petg

Z377058-1CS Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK70

Bottle Duran Plastic Coated 5L.

2180573 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Bottle Pyrex Plastic Coat 10Ltr

1518/18 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Reagent Bottle Plastic Coated 2L

151812 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10

Bottles Cent Pc 500 Ml

3140-0500 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK4

100ml Clear PET Plastic Sirop Bottle

100MLCPET Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

White Mob Caps in Plastic Bags

SAF9580 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK100

Plastic Bottle, Wide Neck, 125ml, Natural

B003N-125 Bio Basic 10, 10UNIT

Plastic Bottle, Wide Neck, 15ml, Natural

B003N-15 Bio Basic 10, 10UNIT

Plastic Bottle, Wide Neck, 250ml, Natural

B003N-250 Bio Basic 10, 10UNIT

Plastic Bottle, Wide Neck, 30ml, Natural

B003N-30 Bio Basic 10, 10UNIT

Plastic Bottle, Wide Neck, 500ml, Natural

B003N-500 Bio Basic 5UNIT

Plastic Bottle, Wide Neck, 70ml, Natural

B003N-70 Bio Basic 10, 10UNIT

Spray bottle with air spray - 50 mL

DD670885 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Bottles Amber Hdpe 125 Ml Nn

2004-0004 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK12

Adapter 250 mL bottles high-cap

E5920717006 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Flat One Piece Moulded Plastic Lid to suit 1 Litre Capacity Bath

BAT7278 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Flat One Piece Moulded Plastic Lid to suit 3 Litre Capacity Bath

BAT7280 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Flat One Piece Moulded Plastic Lid to suit 6 Litre Capacity Bath

BAT7282 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Flat One Piece Moulded Plastic Lid to suit 12 Litre Capacity Bath

BAT7284 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Flat One Piece Moulded Plastic Lid to suit 30 Litre Capacity Bath

BAT7286 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Plastic Bottle, Wide Neck, Sterile, 125ml, Natural

B003N-S125 Bio Basic 10, 10UNIT

Plastic Bottle, Wide Neck, Sterile, 15ml, Natural

B003N-S15 Bio Basic 10, 10UNIT

Plastic Bottle, Wide Neck, Sterile, 250ml, Natural

B003N-S250 Bio Basic 10, 10UNIT

Plastic Bottle, Wide Neck, Sterile, 30ml, Natural

B003N-S30 Bio Basic 10, 10UNIT

Plastic Bottle, Wide Neck, Sterile, 500ml, Natural

B003N-S500 Bio Basic 5UNIT

Plastic Bottle, Wide Neck, Sterile, 70ml, Natural

B003N-S70 Bio Basic 10, 10UNIT

BROWN LOOPED SCREW CAPS WITH "O" RINGS. FITS 0.5ML, 1.5ML AND 2.0ML TUBES

SCO-LP-BR CORNING 500/pk

MiniVac Plastic Tubing Instrument to Bottle Lid

ARG1242 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Syringe Injekt 2 pieces volume 2 mL

DD921001 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK100

Bottles Wash W/M Ldpe 500 Ml

2402-0500 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK4

Duran Bottles 1000ml No Cap

F93990 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10

Bottles N/M Amber 30 Ml Nalgene

2004-0001 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK72

Honey Jar 375ml with Plastic Cap Sterile

CON7774 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK100

Tube Culture With Svl Plastic

B99485 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK40

Heat Extractor with Plastic Knob

IMS006 ScyTek Laboratories 1 ea.

Staining Dish with Cover Plastic

X24085 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Bottle Amber Lab Bottles 500ml

218064406 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10

Nalgene narrow-mouth boston round bottles HDPE with PP closure bulk pack

312002-0032 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK50

4oz Clear Bottles

BP4OZC Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK80

Adapter tubes/ bottles/ plates

E5910751001 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK2

Rack For 9 Bottles 2000ml

WAS6164 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Rack For 16 Bottles 1000ml

WAS6166 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Mycoprep 75Ml Bottles

240862 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK10

FiveGo sample bottles

PHM0033 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK4

Rack For 20 Bottles 500ml

WAS6168 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Rack For 44 Bottles 100ml

WAS6172 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Pallet Knife with Plastic Handle 100mm

SAM1325 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Pallet Knife with Plastic Handle 200mm

SAM1326 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Pallet Knife with Plastic Handle 300mm

SAM1327 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Corning Storage Bottles 250ml

BOT8390 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK12

Corning Storage Bottles 500ml

BOT8393 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK12

Pen for Azlon Bottles

BOT9173 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK2

Bottles Boston PC 500mL

BOT0350 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK12

Bottles Boston PC 1000mL

BOT0352 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK12

Support stand with plastic convertor clamp

HOM2662 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Square bottle 500 mL sterile with septum cap Nalgene

DD29554 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK40

Nalgene Square Media Bottles PETG with HDPE closures in shrink wrapped trays. sterile.

342020-0030 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK280

Plastic tuberculine syringe with drain tube

WAT4836 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

Plastic syringe 30ml with tube and clip

WAT4838 Scientific Laboratory Supplies EACH

60ml HDPE Nalgene Bottles

3121890002 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK1000

Bottles Powder Clear 250ml

BP250C Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK42

Powder Bottles 30ml Clear

BP30C80 Scientific Laboratory Supplies PK80

To our information, that is the primary report on the incidence of C. mycophilum on the edible mushroom P. eryngii in Korea. Based on the pathogenicity check outcomes, the pathogen might assault P. eryngii in any cultivation stage, making it a doubtlessly severe fungal pathogen in P. eryngii. References: (1) C. G. Back et al. J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 76:232, 2010. (2) R. H. Gaze. Mushroom J. 546:23, 1995. (3) F. J. Gea et al. Plant Dis. 95:1030, 2011. (4) H. M. Grogan and R. H. Gaze. Mycol. Res. 104:357, 2000.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.

Scroll to Top